Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
The object of biosafety framework is two-fold: firstly to ensure that human health and the environment are protected at a high level from possible adverse effects of the products of modern biotechnology (GMOs), and secondly to provide a basis for public confidence and for legal certainty for research organizations and industry. The Cartagena protocol on biosafety to the Convention on Biodiversity is mainly concerned with trans-boundary movements of living modified organisms (LMOs), and establishes the international procedures that have to be followed by Parties to the Protocol in such cases. The Protocol is a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity which recognises biosafety as one of the important issues in the conservation of biodiversity.
Slovenija ratified the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in 2002.
Convention on Biological Diversity
The Convention on Biological Diversity was finalized in Nairobi in May 1992 and opened for signature at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro on 5 June 1992. It entered into force on 29 December 1993. Today, the Convention is the main international instrument for addressing biodiversity issues. It provides a comprehensive and holistic approach to the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of natural resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits deriving from the use of genetic resources (ref.: Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity ? text and annexes, 2000, The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal).
Convention on Biological Diversity and Biosafety
Biosafety is one of the issues addressed by the Convention. This concept refers to the need to protect human health and the environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of modern biotechnology. At the same time, modern biotechnology is recognized as having a great potential for the promotion of human well-being, particularly in meeting critical needs for food, agriculture and health care. The Convention clearly recognizes these twin aspects of modern biotechnology. On the one hand, it provides for the access to and transfers of technology, including biotechnology, which are relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. On the other hand, it seeks to ensure the development of appropriate procedures to enhance the safety of biotechnology in the context of the Convention?s overall goal of reducing all potential threats to biological diversity, taking also into account the risks to human health (ref.: Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity ? text and annexes, 2000, The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal)
Cartagena protocol on biosafety to the Convention on Biodiversity
The Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity adopted a supplementary agreement to the Convention known as the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety on 29 January 2000. The Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology. It establishes an advance informed agreement (AIA) procedure for ensuring that countries are provided with the information necessary to make informed decisions before agreeing to the import of such organisms into their territory. The Protocol contains reference to a precautionary approach and reaffirms the precaution language in Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. The Protocol also establishes a Biosafety Clearing House to facilitate the exchange of information on living modified organisms and to assist countries in the implementation of the Protocol (ref.: http://www.biodiv.org/biosafety/background.asp).